- "The urban sustainable development goal: Indicators, complexity and the politics of measuring cities"Jacqueline M. Klopp and Danielle Petretta. 2017. "The urban sustainable development goal: Indicators, complexity and the politics of measuring cities" Cities Volume 63, March Pages 92–97, 2017-03-1
- Negotiating e-politics: Initiating e-governance in a municipal council in KenyaKlopp, J., Marcello, E.M., Kirui, G., and Mwangi, H. | In Information Polity 18 (2013) 21-42., 20130730 [+]
Abstract: Most e-government literature examines outcomes and potential benefits. Yet it is also important to explore the actual process of developing and implementing e-government systems in specific institutional and political environments. In this paper, we analyze the process of developing a website with the Municipal Council of Ruiru in Kenya, a country undergoing democratization and devolution of power. How to support a process that would enable the website to catalyze and support reforms in local government emerged as an important question in this context. We found strategically linking universities and local technology firms to government and fostering their interactions within e-government implementation a helpful approach. Conducting focus group discussions in the course of a participatory design process and discussing each stage of website development with key actors in the government helped bring citizen voices into the process and the final website content. Overall, for the website project to actually help improve government we found it is critical to go beyond participatory design towards a strategic, flexible and longer-term process of engagement in "e-politics", the political negotiations over the use and control of the technology by the government.
- "Toward Open Source Kenya: Creating and Sharing a GIS Database of Nairobi"Williams, Sarah, Elizabeth Marcello and Jacqueline M. Klopp. 2013. "Toward Open Source Kenya: Creating and Sharing a GIS Database of Nairobi" Annals of the Association of American Geographers DOI: 10.1080/00045608.2013.846157, 2013-11-27
- Impacts of roadway emissions on urban particulate matter concentrations in sub-Saharan Africa: new evidence from Nairobi, KenyaVan Vliet, E.D.S. and Kinney, P.L.K. | Environ Research Letters, 2(4): 1-5, December 2007., 20071201 [+]
Abstract: Air quality is a serious and worsening problem in the rapidly growing cities of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, the lack of ambient monitoring data, and particularly urban roadside concentrations for particulate matter in SSA cities severely hinders our ability to describe temporal and spatial patterns of concentrations, characterize exposure–response relationships for key health outcomes, estimate disease burdens, and promote policy initiatives to address air quality. As part of a collaborative transportation planning exercise between Columbia University and the University of Nairobi, air monitoring was carried out in February 2006 in Nairobi, Kenya. The objective of the monitoring was to collect pilot data on air concentrations (PM2.5 and black carbon) encountered while driving in the Nairobi metropolitan area, and to compare those data to simultaneous 'urban background' concentrations measured in Nairobi but away from roadways. For both the background and roadway monitoring, we used portable air sampling systems that collect integrated filter samples. Results from this pilot study found that roadway concentrations of PM2.5 were approximately 20-fold higher than those from the urban background site, whereas black carbon concentrations differed by 10-fold. If confirmed by more extensive sampling, these data would underscore the need for air quality and transportation planning and management directed at mitigating roadway pollution.
- Links between the Built Environment, Climate and Population Health: Interdisciplinary Environmental Change Research in New York CityRosenthal, J.K., Sclar E.D., Kinney, P.L., Knowlton, K., Crauderueff, R., Brandt-Rauf, P.W. | Annals Academy of Medicine, 36:10, 2007., 20070101 [+]
Abstract: Global climate change is expected to pose increasing challenges for cities in the following
decades, placing greater stress and impacts on multiple social and biophysical systems, including
population health, coastal development, urban infrastructure, energy demand, and water
supplies. Simultaneously, a strong global trend towards urbanisation of poverty exists, with
increased challenges for urban populations and local governance to protect and sustain the wellbeing
of growing cities. In the context of these 2 overarching trends, interdisciplinary research
at the city scale is prioritised for understanding the social impacts of climate change and
variability and for the evaluation of strategies in the built environment that might serve as
adaptive responses to climate change. This article discusses 2 recent initiatives of The Earth
Institute at Columbia University (EI) as examples of research that integrates the methods and
objectives of several disciplines, including environmental health science and urban planning, to
understand the potential public health impacts of global climate change and mitigative measures
for the more localised effects of the urban heat island in the New York City metropolitan region.
These efforts embody 2 distinct research approaches. The New York Climate & Health Project
created a new integrated modeling system to assess the public health impacts of climate and land
use change in the metropolitan region. The Cool City Project aims for more applied policyoriented
research that incorporates the local knowledge of community residents to understand
the costs and benefits of interventions in the built environment that might serve to mitigate the
harmful impacts of climate change and variability, and protect urban populations from health
stressors associated with summertime heat. Both types of research are potentially useful for
understanding the impacts of environmental change at the urban scale, the policies needed to
address these challenges, and to train scholars capable of collaborative approaches across the
social and biophysical sciences.
- The 21st century health challenge of slums and citiesSclar, E.D., Garau, P., Carolini, G. | The Lancet, 365, 901-903, 2005., 20050101
- Urban Access for the 21st Century: Finance and Governance Models for Transport Infrastructure. 2004By Sclar, E., Lonroth, M., Wolmar, C.,| Routledge,
- University/City Partnerships: Creating Policy Networks for Urban Transformation in NairobiKlopp, J., Ngau, P. and Sclar, E. | Metropolitan Universities, Special Issue on International Perspectives on Community-University Partnerships, 22(2): 131-142, 2011. [+]
Abstract: This paper describes an innovative collaboration between the Center f or Sustainable Urban Development at Columbia University and the Department of Urban and Regional Planning at the University of Nairobi. By bringing universities into urban policy networks, this partnership aims to re-shape pedagogy, policy and research action for sustainable urban development. The strategy underlying this partnership is to foster meaningful local university/municipality partnerships aimed at improving the social and physical sustainability of cities in the global South as well as transform how and what urban planning students learn in order to manage power and complexity. The paper raises questions about international collaborations that bring universities together with cities and their residents and how those collaborations can be designed to better ensure their success.
- Traffic impacts on PM2.5 air quality in Nairobi, KenyaKinney, P.L., Gatari Gichuru, M., Volavka-Close, N., Ngo, N., Ndiba, P., Law, A., Gachanja, A., Gaita, S.L., Chillrud, S. and Sclar, E. | Kinney, P.L., Gatari Gichuru, M., Volavka-Close, N., Ngo, N., Ndiba, P., Law, A., Gachanja, A., Gaita, S.L., Chillrud [+]
Abstract: Motor vehicle traffic is an important source of particulate pollution in cities of the developing world, where rapid growth, coupled with a lack of effective transport and land use planning, may result in harmful levels of fine particles (PM2.5) in the air. However, a lack of air monitoring data hinders health impact assessments and the development of transportation and land use policies that could reduce health burdens due to outdoor air pollution. To address this important need, a study of traffic-related PM2.5 was carried out in the city of Nairobi, Kenya, a model city for sub-Saharan Africa, in July 2009. Sampling was carried out using portable filter-based air samplers carried in backpacks by technicians on weekdays over two weeks at several sites in and around Nairobi ranging from high-traffic roadways to rural background. Mean daytime concentrations of PM2.5 ranged from 10.7 at the rural background site to 98.1 ?g/m3 on a sidewalk in the central business district. Horizontal dispersion measurements demonstrated a decrease in PM2.5 concentration from 128.7 to 18.7 ?g/m3 over 100 m downwind of a major intersection in Nairobi. A vertical dispersion experiment revealed a decrease from 119.5 ?g/m3 at street level to 42.8 ?g/m3 on a third-floor rooftop in the central business district. Though not directly comparable to air quality guidelines, which are based on 24-h or annual averages, the urban concentrations we observed raise concern with regard to public health and related policy. Taken together with survey data on commuting patterns within Nairobi, these results suggest that many Nairobi residents are exposed on a regular basis to elevated concentrations of fine particle air pollution, with potentially serious long-term implications for health.
- Towards a Political Economy of Transportation Policy and Practice in NairobiKlopp, J. | Urban Forum, 23(1): 1-21, 2012
- The social dimensions of urban travel in Nairobi, Kenya: Analysis, Insights, and OpportunitiesSalon, D., and Aligula, E. | Journal of Transport Geography, 22: 64-76, 2012. [+]
Abstract: This paper uses travel survey data to explore the social dimension of urban travel in Nairobi. It seeks to explain why, where and how people in Nairobi travel and the implications of that behavior pattern. The paper has two parts: an in-depth exploration of the travel patterns and preferences of Nairobi residents and a discussion of the implications of these results for transport policy in this city. The data show that the lack of suitable transport infrastructure exacerbates travel challenges for residents across all income groups. A substantial portion of the local population cannot regularly afford any form of motorized transportation. They thus are forced to locate in slums near sources of employment, and the widespread lack of pedestrian and bicycle infrastructure increases the risk that they face when travelling. The middle income group who cannot afford private cars is almost completely dependent on the public transport system. Any disruption in the public transport service severely disrupts their lives and their livelihoods. For the privileged 15-20 percent of Nairobi households who own cars, they are at the mercy of the congested, under-maintained, and dangerous roadways. Finally, as in most other parts of the world, it is clear that once a Nairobi resident owns a car, s/he is going to use it for as many of his or her transportation needs as possible. Unless public transport can be removed from the traffic congestion so that travelling is substantially faster by public transport than by private car, very few car owners will be using the system.